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How kids today could know as much as Grandma did

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Posted on 27th January 2009 by Judy Breck in Emerging Online Knowledge, Mobile Learning, Networks and Schools We Have Now

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The picture above shows my Grandma (2nd from right, front row), born in Kansas City in 1884, with some of her schoolmates. Below is the text of an email that is being sent around the internet about how very much more school kids in Kansas learned in Grandma’s day than they do now. Any of the kids in the picture could have told you all about syllabication and the the inclination of the earth, I would bet.

How could kids today know as much as Grandma learned in her Kansas school? There is nothing on the final exam shown below that could not be easily learned by a student with a mobile in her pocket that browses the internet. Grandma would have loved it BTW. When she was a young woman she was a high tech secretary skilled on a typewriter by around 1900.

UPDATE: A reader sent me this message to my email: “The test appears to be a hoax that’s been circulated by email for several years now. [Link to Scopes.] Didn’t want to point this out in the comments though.” I appreciate this reader’s heads up very much, and have just read the Scopes evaluation.
I find it fascinating that Scopes does not seem to say the exam itself is a hoax. Instead it states: “Claim: An 1895 graduation examination for public school students demonstrates a shocking decline in educational standards. Status: False.” [ital. Scopes'] Scopes then launches into a lengthy criticism of this “false” email content along these lines: “Just about any test looks difficult to those who haven’t recently been steeped in the material it covers. . . .” I actually had 2 grandmothers educated in Kansas public schools before 1900, both of whom I knew well. I am certain they could have done the arithmetic in the test, and guess that they would have known most of the other questions’ answers. They were both grammar whizzes with beautiful penmanship. I got my public school education in Texas in the 1940s and 1950s, and recall learning most of the answers to the questions on this “false” list. Even if such tests were not given in Kansas in the 1890s, I know first hand that they were given in Texas in the 1940s.
All of that aside, what I wrote in this post originally stands: Any generation would benefit from having what is known by humankind in their pocket. Today’s kids do, and my Grandmas both would have loved it!

UPDATE #2: After writing the above update, I decided to check my bravado about being able to find things on the internet. Here, from the Salina Journal is a report directly from the Kansas source: 1895 Salilne County exam continues to raise interest.

THE TEXT OF THE EMAIL:
This is the eighth-grade final exam from 1895 in Salina, KS, USA . It was taken from the original document on file at the Smokey Valley Genealogical Society and Library in Salina, KS , and reprinted by the Salina Journal.

8th GRADE FINAL EXAM
Grammar (Time, one hour)
1. Give nine rules for the use of Capital Letters.
2 . Name the Parts of Speech and define those that have no Modifications.
3. Define Verse, Stanza and Paragraph.
4. What are the Principal Parts of a verb? Give Principal Parts of lie, lay and run
5. Define Case, Illustrate each Case.
6. What is Punctuation? Give rules for principal marks of Punctuation.
7. Write a composition of about 150 words and show therein that you understand the practical use of the rules of grammar.

Arithmetic (Time, 1.25 hours)
1. Name and define the Fundamental Rules of Arithmetic.
2. A wagon box is 2 ft deep, 10 feet long, and 3 ft. wide. How many bushels of wheat will it hold?
3. If a load of wheat weighs 3942 lbs., what is it worth at 50cts/bushel, deducting 1050lbs. for tare?
4. District No. 33 has a valuation of $35,000. What is the necessary levy to carry on a school seven months at $50 per month, and have $104 for incidentals?
5. Find cost of 6720 lbs. coal at $6.00 per ton.
6. Find the interest of $512.60 for 8 months and 18 days at 7 percent.
7. What is the cost of 40 boards 12 inches wide and 16 ft. long at $20 per meter?
8 Find bank discount on $300 for 90 days (no grace) at 10 percent.
9. What is the cost of a square farm at $15 per acre, the distance around which is 640 rods?
10. Write a Bank Check, a Promissory Note, and a Receipt.

U. S. History (Time, 45 minutes)
1. Give the epochs into which U. S. History is divided. (more…)

Yelling “Get a horse!” is old hat

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Posted on 27th December 2008 by Judy Breck in Networks and Open Content

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The image on the right above shows my Grandfather Louis Merrick Breck in 1907, driving what my Dad, his son, remembered was El Paso, Texas’ 17th automobile. It was a fine Pope Toledo. The image at the left shows the Brecks a generation earlier when my Grandfather was a boy — when it took a horse to move a carraige.

The Pope Toledo that was my Grandfather’s pride and joy was noisy, bumpy, slow, not very well-protected in bad weather, and received quite a few “Get a horse!” jeers from sidewalks and wagons. I would argue, though, that the kind of change an individual’s education is undergoing had already happened for personal transportation by the time my Grandfather was sporting his Pope Toledo.

For transportation the change was from horses to the motor: you still had the carriage but the power source was fundamentally different. The coolest green hybrids coming off the automoblie assembly lines of the future will still be powered by motors, not horses.

For education the fundamental change we have now gone through is from scattered resources to networked: you still have the facts, skills, ideas to be learned, but now they are interconnected. The 3Rs, humanities, sciences, technologies learned through the future’s coolest devices and grandest social networks will all be connected in cognitive patterns.

As motors took over powering carriages, networking powers learning resources. Yelling “Get a horse!” was old hat. Doing unconnected education is old hat today.

Science Commons video fundamentally important

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Posted on 17th December 2008 by Judy Breck in Connective Expression, Emerging Online Knowledge, Findability, Networks, Open Content and Uncategorized

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Science Commons is a project of the Creative Commons. Along with posting this video, project text overview, Making the Web Work for Science, explains:

Science Commons designs strategies and tools for faster, more efficient web-enabled scientific research. We identify unnecessary barriers to research, craft policy guidelines and legal agreements to lower those barriers, and develop technology to make research, data and materials easier to find and use.

Our goal is to speed the translation of data into discovery — unlocking the value of research so more people can benefit from the work scientists are doing.

Walt Whitman Archive a leader in knowledge migration to the internet

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Posted on 15th December 2008 by Judy Breck in Emerging Online Knowledge, Literature, Networks and Open Content

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The Walt Whitman Archive feature on The Wired Campus Archive Watch is aptly titled: All Whitman, All Digital. The feature introduction (followed by an interview with Professor Folsom) gives its history. This is a leader project for literary migration to to internet:

In the mid-1990s, Ed Folsom, a professor of English at the University of Iowa, and another scholar, Kenneth M. Price, set out to create a digital scholarly edition of Walt Whitman’s works. The Walt Whitman Archive began life as a CD-ROM. Now housed at the University of Nebraska at Lincoln, where Mr. Price teaches, the archive contains thousands of digital facsimiles of Whitman’s poetry and letters as well as writings about Whitman, and it’s constantly growing. It averages more than 20,000 visits a day from scholars, students, and Whitmaniacs everywhere. Money to keep the archive afloat comes from the co-directors’ home institutions and a series of grants, and an endowment is in the works.

How do you find what you want and how do you know it is true?

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Posted on 27th October 2008 by Judy Breck in Emerging Online Knowledge, Findability, Mobile Learning, Networks and Open Content

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This except is from the draft introduction to the handbook I am writing on findability. Wonderfully, Howard Rheingold seems able always to get to the crux of things:

“All of the world’s knowledge is in the air to be plucked down by our telephone. Of course it’s also all the world’s disinformation, misinformation, spam, porn, Nigerian frauds, urban legends, hoaxes. So how do you find what you want and how do you know that it’s true? Those seem like to me both extremely important questions today . . . .”
Howard Rheingold, interview by Jaap van de Geer, October 2008

As he does so very well, Howard Rheingold went straight to the heart of our global communication morass, in his answer above to a Dutch interviewer. Finding what you want and knowing if it is true are more and more challenging and more and more perplexing as the internet engulfs us in a seemingly chaotic virtual ocean of everything we know and very much of what we do.

Thumbing through index cards in little drawers and sticking our noses into stacks of books to find knowledge and check its truth is very twentieth century. Those old methods cannot reach into the digital-only versions of the latest and most accurate knowledge that is to be found only through a browser window into the new information realm.

The answer to Rheingold’s question is to change both where we look and the way we ascertain truthfulness:

Finding what you want: Look in the full and online ocean, staying clear of digital knowledge that is artificially molded into analog shapes and storage.

Ascertaining what is true: Let the laws and methods of the entirely new medium for human information that govern what happens in the ocean provide you with the most recent, accurate, and in-context truth available on earth. [Hint: start with the network laws.]

The time has come to let a wide range of management principles of the past move aside so we can work toward understanding the new global medium from which all of the world’s knowledge—and junk—can be plucked by the mobile computer in what we are still calling a phone.

Teemu’s word mycelium defines the golden swamp

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Posted on 21st October 2008 by Judy Breck in Golden Age of Learning, Mobile & Ubiquitous and Networks

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Teemu Arina has a new post on his blog that is prompted by his upcoming talk at Mobile Monday Amsterdam. The title of the post is How Mobile is Changing our Society. As I always do from Teemu, I learned several things from this essay. One of them was this new word: mycelium.

Teemu writes: “An entirely new thing is emerging from this interconnected electronic mycelium.” Webster’s unabridged dictionary defines mycelium as:

: the mass of interwoven hyphae that forms especially the vegetative portion of the thallus of a fungus and that in the larger forms (as the mushrooms) forms cobwebby filaments penetrating the substrate but in many smaller fungi (as most parasitic forms) is invisible to the naked eye but ramifies through the substrate or tissues of the host usually producing its spore fruits on the surface; also : a similar mass of filaments formed by a higher bacterium

This chaotic jumble reflects well what it is like for us to look now at the proliferating cables, satellites, wires, and glass we are told somehow platform the internet. The virtual connectivity that emerges from it all is, however, transformational.

Teemu has given us another name for what is mushrooming invisibly around our planet: the interconnected electronic mycelium. George Gilder called it the telecosm. Calling it the cloud is sliding into our vocabulary from the smaller mycelium that comes to hover over a server farm. I like to call it the golden swamp. The simplest name is network.

By whatever name it goes, that new place will dominate human communication far into the future. I am now redirecting this blog from writing about the concept we call “education” because that concept is mired in the analog past. What is known by humankind is now mirrored from the mycelium. The meaning of learning has become to engage knowledge there.

About a Handbook for 21st Century Education

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Posted on 6th October 2008 by Judy Breck in Uncategorized

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The Handbook is a new project begun in September 2008. It collects articles from this blog that describe the morphing underway from analog-geographically based delivery of knowledge for learning to the digital ecology of enlightenment used in common by everyone on earth.

The handbook will be designed for the individual who wants to take part in putting knowledge assets online so they can be reached by the most learners.

Experts teach by copywriting for search engines

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Posted on 5th October 2008 by Judy Breck in Emerging Online Knowledge and SEO

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A session in the “boot camp” for beginners at next week’s SMX Search Marketing Expo in New York City is titled Copywriting For Search Success. Because search engine optimization (SEO — the theme of the Expo) and the education establishment have barely engaged each other, experts who want to teach what they know have a powerful tool waiting for them to pick up and use. The promotional copy for the boot camp copywriting session puts it this way:

- It’s pretty simple. Want to be found for certain words? It helps to actually use those words in your web pages! This session covers the importance of textual content to search engines and how with some forethought, you can create HTML title tags and body copy that works to generate search traffic yet which also pleases your human visitors.

So if you are an expert in science, history, literature, or another “academic” area, how does this apply to you? You may have already created some webpages that present what you know. A powerful tool for getting your webpages into the global learning conversations online is to optimize them for search engines by using words the search engine spiders will pick up, and using them in the right places on your webpages. As the copy says above: It’s pretty simple.

How we do blush to hear the untutored tongue

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Posted on 27th September 2008 by Judy Breck in Connective Expression, Emerging Online Knowledge, Golden Age of Learning, Mobile Learning, Networks, Open Content, Subject Sampler and Uncategorized

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In his powerful heads-up book Jump Point, Tom Hayes writes (p. 11) that experts forecast that Web-enabled mobile phone adoption can “easily reach the three billion mark by the Jump Point year 2011, attaining an astounding five billion worldwide users by 2015.” [italics Hayes']. He further tells us that the “third billion” people who will come online within the next 1,000 days will have “never been in a classroom, owned a book, or read more than a few signpost words.” (p. 22) This learning deficit will be even more true of the fourth and fifth billion. These billions will include most of the children of the new generations.

Obviously, there is no way to build schools by 2011 or 2015 for these billions of people who do not have an education. They will essentially all, however, have a mobile phone. At the least, the mobiles the new internet participants have can provide the literacy input Abe Lincoln (born 1809) was limited to as a boy in the rugged pioneer settlements of Kentucky and Indiana. In his biography Lincoln, David Herbert Donald describes the poverty of education available to the youngster:

. . . his teachers, transient and untrained as they were, helped him master the basic tools so that in the future he could educate himself. Dilworth’s Spelling Book, which he and [his older sister] Sarah had begun to use in Kentucky, provided his introduction to grammar and spelling. Beginning with the alphabet and Arabic and Roman numerals, it proceeded to words of two letters, then three, and finally four letters. From these the student began to construct sentences like: “No man may put off the law of God.” Dilworth’s then went on to more advanced subjects, and the final sections included prose and verse selections, some accompanied by crude woodcuts — which may have been the first pictures Abraham Lincoln had ever seen. Other readers, like The Columbian Class Book and The Kentucky Preceptor, expanded and reinforced what he learned from Dilworth’s.

As Lincoln grew through his childhood and adolescent years he had very little schooling. He read books when he could get them, but they were rare in the rough farming environment where he remain until he was in his twenties.

Today, 200 years later, many of the third, fourth, and fifth billion who will come online in the next six years are strikingly similar in their experience with education to young Lincoln. The huge difference is that today’s billions will have mobile phones that will provide them with everything Dilworth’s gave Lincoln, all the books they could possibly read, and much, much more.

Tomorrow teacher

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Posted on 24th September 2008 by Judy Breck in Connective Expression, Golden Age of Learning, Networks and Schools We Have Now

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If I were starting out today to pursue a career in teaching, this is what I would do:

1. Rent teaching space in a building with high speed internet access.
2. Make a deal with a smartphone company to sell or give their latest device to students who sign up for my teaching sessions.
3. Make a deal with some advertisers of projects valuable to students (museums, media) to help with the cost of my students’ 24/7 wireless access in return for limited time display of ads on the students’ phones. Many other ways of monetizing access are coming.
4. Advertise to the locality where my teaching space is rented for students to register for specific subjects I will teach them.
5. Make a deal with an online testing service to test my students after completion of my teaching, and to certify their level of competence based on the tests they take.

I would teach only what I am interested in and know, such as world history, American history, and civics. My teaching would include one-on-one sessions with students, group discourse, and virtual discourse across the internet. Students ages would be mixed: they would be accepted based on their competence for the subject and demonstrated motivation to learn it.

A key goal of my teaching would be to instruct each student in how to use the network of online knowledge for our subject to continue to learn more into the future. Student families could pay me directly or tap into scholarships I would arrange with private sector sponsors.

When I was 23, I taught high school for a year — a half a century ago. Over the years since my 1960-61 revolving door teaching experience, the internet has removed the barriers that repelled me then: cookiecutter classes, disregard that students learn so little, and administrative frustration. I was driven out of teaching then.

I would be eager to enter teaching today because the future is full of promise. Lockstep, low expectations schooling is fading from relevance as the internet emerges to partner with the teacher of tomorrow.

Ecology of enlightenment

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Posted on 9th September 2008 by Judy Breck in Emerging Online Knowledge

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The beautiful image above illustrates a New York Science Times article about how “new research suggests that exotic species, instead of causing extinctions, may actually aid diversity.” This is a very big idea, and one that gives us insight into the globalization of humanity and ideas that is washing across our planet.

When Europeans began arriving in New Zealand, they brought with them alien plants — crops, garden plants and stowaway weeds. Today, 22,000 non-native plants grow in New Zealand. Most of them can survive only with the loving care of gardeners and farmers. But 2,069 have become naturalized: they have spread out across the islands on their own. There are more naturalized invasive plant species in New Zealand than native species.

It sounds like the makings of an ecological disaster: an epidemic of invasive species that wipes out the delicate native species in its path. But in a paper published in August in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Dov Sax, an ecologist at Brown University, and Steven D. Gaines, a marine biologist at the University of California, Santa Barbara, point out that the invasion has not led to a mass extinction of native plants. The number of documented extinctions of native New Zealand plant species is a grand total of three.

Exotic species receive lots of attention and create lots of worry. Some scientists consider biological invasions among the top two or three forces driving species into extinction. But Dr. Sax, Dr. Gaines and several other researchers argue that attitudes about exotic species are too simplistic. While some invasions are indeed devastating, they often do not set off extinctions. They can even spur the evolution of new diversity.

The big idea here is the mechanism that is illustrated: openness both stimulates established factors through competition and makes room for new participants that are able to win ground. In the Golden Swamp that is the open internet, it is this mechanism that will release the generations now young into a global ecology of enlightenment. Education is breaking down its protection of varying species of ideas that are learned by children in each country and each culture. Ideas that can hold their own from each of these groupings will participate in the enlightenment and those that fail will require the loving care of cognitive gardeners and farmers.

The frog and fish and fly in the image remind us that the big idea of diversity has been around for a very, very long time. Somehow rocks and rivers once welcomed one-celled life, and that life grew more diverse as colonies of cells became individuals — and later on the fish, and then the fly, and then the frog found room in the ecology of life. I think what lies ahead for human thinking is a grand new stage of strengthening of established truths by competition, along with some making room by all of us to be nourished by some exotic thoughts that will enlighten us.

We need to be careful not to be too simplistic about exotic ideas.

Children today have their heads in the cloud

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Posted on 5th September 2008 by Judy Breck in Mobile & Ubiquitous and Mobile Learning

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Children have their heads in the cloud because that is where what they are tasked to learn by education is now. In the image above, Dell illustrates its new Inspiron Mini 9 with a child viewing a pagoda. That pagoda is not on the hard drive of the device displaying it. The pagoda is in the internet content cloud.

The image on the left shows my iPhone G3 in the hands of my eight-year-old great niece Melinda. Using the iPhone, she can display the same pagoda from the cloud. Children the age of those in the images would be hard put to find anything in their analog experiences that would provide knowledge remotely as complete and compelling for a pagoda as they reach in the cloud.

In announcing Fizzbook, another mini laptop competitive to the Inspiron and available soon in the UK, Silicon.com explains:

With its inspiration coming from the One Laptop Per Child initiative, Intel has teamed up with Zoostorm to launch a budget laptop for school kids in the UK.

It is based on the second generation Intel Classmate PC – part of the One Laptop Per Child initiative, and is called the Fizzbook. It includes a fully functioning Windows XP operating system and comes with the Intel Atom chip processor.

The mini laptop can be used for learning activities as well as general computer tasks such as surfing the internet, playing media and, of course, games.

In the early stages of personal computer device development, a fundamental assumption was that the device had to have a big memory so what its owner would use it for would be available on its hard drive. If you wanted to learn about pagodas, you had to feed your computer CDs to download an encyclopedia with an article about pagodas. If you were a school library, you had to buy digitized knowledge resources for students to learn from. Those were the old days.

People who are children today will embrace the subjects they learn in the cloud, which is the open online network of what is known by humankind. The cloud abounds with mathematics, sciences, humanities, technologies — liberal arts, business studies, skill training — what is known about these subjects is already out there in the cloud. For example, if you are learning about pagodas, just about every pagoda on earth is in this network.

A key question for educators: It is the 21st century, do you know where our children are? For the part of the answer about where their minds are, the answer is: in the cloud.

Six ways that education will be revamped by the Internet

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Posted on 3rd September 2008 by Judy Breck in Golden Age of Learning

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Being an “old pol” who served long ago on two national staffs of Presidential campaigns and six statewide election efforts, I am having trouble staying away from spending just about all of my time reading the political blogs. The US Presidential election is fascinating, and the bloggers are delivering information in entirely new ways through their posts.

The GoldenSwamp.com blog is about the learning stuff (gold) in the swamp (the internet). What I am writing here picks up a format that has been popping up in the political blogs. The format could be called the “n things list”: n things that are happening, n reasons why, n things to look for. In that format, here are:

6 ways that education will be revamped by the internet in coming months:

1. The shift of primary creative development will be from tech to content. The progression of the most interesting challenges has been from creating the computers, to conceiving applications, to establishing networks — and now to manipulating the data and its meaning that lives in the new environment created by it all. The wildly popular new Apple App Store does not sell devices or connections, it sells content to be played with, used for information, and learned.

2. The understanding of the internet is deepening to studying the relationships [think hyperlinks] of its smallest pieces. The open connectivity of the pieces of cognitive gold within the internet swamp is the way that knowledge will emerge for students, mirroring the connectivity of their learning minds.

3. The cloud cometh – but SaaS (Software as a Service) is only the technical platform for the content the cloud contains and interfaces. When we are interacting with content in the cloud, our cognitive connectivity becomes global.

4. Learning content will be SEOed (optimized for search engines), revolutionizing its use as has happened already in e-commerce and the media.

5. Social networks — increasingly replacing textbooks — will become significant delivery mechanisms for connection to the knowledge students learn.

6. As mobiles increasingly deliver the Internet there will be no separate m-learning to create. Soon most digital learning content interaction will be mobile as these devices individually owned by students deliver the Internet. One Web will rule.

The education sector’s wide open mobile opportunity

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Posted on 27th August 2008 by Judy Breck in Mobile Learning

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The announcement this week of the Future Mobile Awards 2008 does not include a category for education. Its Content and Applications Stream is made up of these categories: Web 2.0, Search, Advertising, Gambling, Games, Music, TV, Adult, and UGC (user generated content).

The awards sponsor Juniper Research describes their purpose: The Future Mobile Awards are given to companies that we believe have made significant progress within their sector during the previous year, and are now poised to make considerable market impact in the future.

Put together the pieces:

The education industry rakes in billions of dollars annually just to produce printed textbooks.
Learning is in large part a connecting/communicating process, and mobile is in the connecting/communicating business.
Youngsters (think students) around the world are demanding and getting mobile phones.

The opportunities in for mobile education sector appear to be wide open. Why have they not blossomed, as other sectors have?

I think this is what is actually happening: As it has gotten broader band, mobile is emerging as the primary tool of learning/education — with One-Web interfacing knowledge resources to an individual student device that enables collaborative learning. The ecology of enlightenment that is emerging will support new education dynamics. These dynamics are:

The knowledge to be learned forms an open network commons within the cloud and the students and teachers both use their mobiles to interface that knowledge via the One Web and to collaborate in the learning process.

Real education will not be academic

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Posted on 23rd August 2008 by Judy Breck in Carnival of the Mobilists, Connective Expression, Networks and Schools We Have Now

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Reading through the conclusion of Charles Murray’s Real Education sharpens my non-academic vision of the future of learning. (The word academy means school. Academic ability is the ability to learn school subjects.) Murray’s conclusions are about an elite with academic ability, K-12 schools that teach a core liberal education, and less young people attending college. Murray explains this far better than I can. If the Internet had not developed, I would agree wholeheartedly with him. But the Internet is here and conforming learning to this marvelous new ecology of enlightenment is the job at hand for educators.

On pages 90-91, Murray writes: “. . . the Internet is revolutionizing everything.” And: “. . . the technology is still in its early stages of development and the rate of improvement breathtaking. . . .”

Yes, and the notion of academic ability is not exempt from that revolution. Murray’s underlying premise in Real Education is that because students differ in academic ability, their schooling should differ. But schooling itself (academics as we have known them) are obsolete vehicles for packaging and delivering learning resources: that by which we have measured intelligence has broken down. The reason for the break down is that fundamentals of how academies deliver learning are incompatible with networks (the open Internet). The hierarchies of courses, curricula, and school grades cannot be shoehorned into networks. The old school methods unbundle.

Here is an example of unbundling: From page 81 of Real Education — an excerpt from a curriculum for third graders includes for science this goal: “Use a prism to learn about the spectrum.” From the hierarchical core of subjects used in the example, third grade students will be taught to a test about prisms at a level thought to be appropriate for nine-year-olds. The prism at third grade level is embedded in a science curriculum.

This example of academic science as third grade subject organization unbundles when a student of any age begins clicking through webpages about prisms like these: Prism refraction applet, Discover of the nature of light, Reflection grating systems, and Color theory. Including, but hardly limited to, what a third grader can learn, these webpages and their links are a network of ideas in which a learner can travel to whatever level an individual student’s and moment’s curiosity beckon.

The academy (schools as we have known them for delivering knowledge) will be obsolete — to put it in 2008 device terms — as soon as iPhone-grade mobile devices deliver the Internet to most of the world’s children. That will happen within a few years. It could happen very fast if we set it as a high priority.

There may well be a general sort of intelligence that determines how much knowledge about prisms different individual children can ultimately acquire. Patterns of learning seem certain to change when not every kid is not expected to grasp the prism/spectum concepts at age nine. The conceptualizing of intelligence by measuring success at pre-Internet academies (schools) needs to be abandoned. Just as the Internet is impelling the re-conceptualization of literacy, intelligence needs to be measured by network ability, not academics. My guess is that network learning creates not one brainy elite — as an academy does — but elites composed of varying patterns of individuals whose talents emerge at different stages of maturation into different masteries of different subjects.